Francis was constantly under threat of attack from the north, from the Spanish Netherlands, or from the south of Spain itself through the Pyrenees. Spain and the Netherlands ruled forty-four the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Charles also ruled Austria and had a foothold in northern Italy, where it certainly could attack France from the south-east - through Savoy. There, Francis led a war with Charles turned to his tragic failure and ended with his capture at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. Most of the French aristocracy was either killed or taken prisoner, and Francis himself during the year was a prisoner of Charles V in Spain. Its finally released in exchange for hostages sons cast. So the future Henry II, in turn, spent two years in Spain as a prisoner. Charles V was a devout Catholic, and the Spanish Netherlands were the northern part of the fist, in which the sovereign gripped France. From England, the Netherlands takes only the Strait of Pas-de-Calais.
Aelian: On the Characteristics of Animals, Volume II, Books 6-11 (Loeb Classical Library No. 448)
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